Troy’s Total Eclipse 1925

Total solar eclipse, Troy, New York, January 24, 1925.The last total solar eclipse to cross Upstate New York took place on the morning of January 24, 1925, reaching its peak at 9:11 a.m. This week’s eclipse prompted a researcher to send us a photograph of the event as viewed from Troy. (Note the figures standing on the roof tops in the left hand side of the image). The January 14, 1925 edition of the Rensselaer Polytechnic featured a front page article on the forthcoming event.

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Commencement 1917

The Institute’s ninety-third commencement took place on Wednesday, June 13, 1917 in the ’87 Gymnasium. Eighty-nine students received bachelor’s degrees: 53 in Civil Engineering, 19 in Electrical Engineering, 12 in Mechanical Engineering, and 5 in Chemical Engineering. Three graduate degrees were awarded: a Masters in Mechanical Engineering, a Masters in Civil Engineering, and a Doctor of Philosophy (chemistry). The commencement address was delivered by Charles Whiting Baker editor of the Engineering News-Record.

Many members of the class left for military service immediately after graduation.





Read on for the Class of 1917 Senior History

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Rensselaer in the Great War

The first week of April 2017 marks the one hundredth anniversary of the United States entry into the Great War, or the First World War as it came to be called. On April 2, President Woodrow Wilson went before a joint session of Congress to request a declaration of war against Germany. Wilson cited Germany’s violation of its pledge to suspend unrestricted submarine warfare in the North Atlantic and the Mediterranean, as well as its attempts to entice Mexico into an alliance against the United States, as his reasons for declaring war. The U.S. Senate voted in support of the measure and the House concurred two days later. The United States later declared war on Germany’s ally Austria-Hungary on December 7. In May the Selective Service Act was passed requiring all males between the ages of 21 and 31 (later increased to 18 through 45) to register for potential call-up for military service (the draft).

The Great War had a significant impact on Rensselaer and American higher education in general. The value of higher education, especially technical education, to the nation’s war effort was recognized and taken seriously for the first time. At Rensselaer the pressure of voluntary enlistments (over 30 students enlisted and left the Institute by May of 1917) and the draft cut civilian student enrollment from 623 in 1917 to 190 in 1918 (mostly students who had deferments from the draft or were foreign nationals).

The student body had been well aware of the conflict prior to America’s entry. In February 1917 the Secretary of the Institute’s rifle club had wired Secretary of War, Newton D. Baker, offering to raise two companies of mounted engineers from the Rensselaer community. Baker replied that he would give the proposal consideration, if necessary. In May 1917 the Institute trustees announced their intention to establish a course in military engineering, and classes in military training began in October for about 150 students.

Also in 1917 in order to conserve its rationed coal supply the Institute began two heatless days per week and closed several buildings. The library began collecting funds to send books to servicemen in France and the student body started a “Smoke Fund” to collect money for the purchase of tobacco products also to be sent to soldiers in France. With the exception of athletic events, most campus social activities were limited or curtailed, including the annual student and alumni pageants held each spring at graduation.

In 1918 the possible value of higher education in wartime was acknowledged by a new War Department rule that college and university students who were academically in the first third of their class would be granted draft deferments. This rule was criticized by former President Theodore Roosevelt for giving special treatment to students. Rensselaer’s President Palmer Ricketts responded to Roosevelt in a letter to the editor of the Baltimore Sun arguing the case for educational deferments.

Members of the all-male faculty were also leaving for military service and in response to this in November 1918 the Institute appointed its first woman teacher, Miss Hazel Brennan, as an Assistant Instructor in Chemistry, but she left a year later. In 1919 Madame Marie De Pierpont was appointed as an instructor in French. She was named a full professor and appointed head of the language department in 1928. In 1918, possibly to compensate for the shortage of students, Institute trustee Alfred Renshaw (President Rickett’s brother-in-law), made a motion at the trustees’ December 5 meeting that women be allowed to attend the Institute. The motion lost. This was followed by a motion by trustee Henry W. Hodge, class of 1885, “Resolved, that at the present time it is not advisable to allow the admission of women students.” All votes were “yea’ except Mr. Renshaw.

In February 1918, the War Department created the Committee on Education and Special Training. The purpose of this committee was to assess the needs of the military branches. Identifying a drastic need for trained soldiers, the Student Army Training Corps (SATC) was created to provide special training for men entering the service through voluntary induction and was essentially an effort to encourage young men to receive both a college education and train for the military simultaneously.

The SATC officially began on October 1, 1918. It was located at 525 educational institutions and inducted 200,000 total students on the first day. Unlike the Selective Service Draft, enrollment in the SATC was completely voluntary. However, men who joined received the rank of private in the United States army. This was not a way of avoiding enlistment. A similar program was initiated to train students for naval service.

SATC had a short existence since the armistice ending the war was signed on November 11, 1918. However, for two months in the autumn of 1918 Rensselaer, like many other colleges, became literally a military camp, with 550 student soldiers and 120 student sailors under military authority. The students pursued a greatly condensed year-round curriculum, which consisted of about two-thirds of Rensselaer’s regular coursework, but was to be completed in two years.

President Palmer Ricketts described the program in a September 1918 letter to Rensselaer’s alumni. Both the army and navy units were demobilized after about 80 days in December 1918. Two hundred of the students immediately left the Institute and those remaining returned to their four-year curriculums.

At least 838 Institute students and alumni were on active military service during the Great War. Of these, 426 were graduates, 186 were former students who left before receiving their degrees, and 226 were students who left the Institute to enter the service. The Polytechnic estimated that thirty-nine percent of Rensselaer students and alumni served on active duty.

Twenty-nine Rensselaer alumni and students died in service during the Great War. Eleven were killed in action, thirteen died of pneumonia, and five died in aircraft or vehicle accidents. The names of twenty-eight were inscribed on a bronze memorial plaque now located on the Approach. The name of Lieutenant Ransom S. Pattison, ’08, who left before graduation and was killed in France, is not included on the plaque. (The thirteen who died from pneumonia were likely victims of the devastating 1918-1920 flu pandemic which also killed 14 Institute students during the same period.)

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Mystery publications

We haven’t blogged about mystery images in a while, but since they’re always fun I’d like to introduce a twist on that theme. Today I want to share a couple of “mystery publications” with our readers: KITE and Student Buyer’s Guide (SBG).  I found several issues of each while organizing some old campus publications that were donated to RPI.  Now I want to know more about them!

Student Buyer's Guide masthead, October 28, 1971

Both publications date from the 1970s and feature information of interest to students, particularly SBG.  It was published weekly during the school year in Latham, New York, which is centrally located between Troy, Albany, and Schenectady.  Its contents were geared toward local college-aged people, including information about concerts, exhibits, lectures, sports, movies, mixers, etc.  It also published lists of local services and venues, including coffee houses, museums, and draft counseling centers.  Students could place ads or peruse them, fill out a crossword puzzle, and even compete in a weekly “Guess the Location” photo contest.

According to editor Mike Jacobson, the Guide existed to serve student needs (v. 1, no. 1, September 23, 1971).  However, by the fifth issue (October 21, 1971) publisher David A. Cavanaugh wrote a piece defending SBG against complaints of competition from college newspapers in the capital district.  Apparently a battle for advertising dollars was brewing, but since none of the later issues contain editorials it isn’t clear what happened.

KITE masthead, February 4, 1972

The other paper, KITE, billed itself as “Art and Entertainment in the Northeast.”  KITE Publications, a subsidiary of General Audio Corporation in Schenectady, New York, printed an extensive arts and music calendar, articles on cultural events and the media, and of course local ads.  While it featured events at SUNYA (University at Albany), RPI, Siena, Union, and other local colleges, it appealed to non-collegiate readers as well.

Interestingly, SBG had a couple of people affiliated with Rensselaer on their staff (see the October 28, 1971 clipping).  What isn’t clear is what became of these publications.  Our issues date from Fall 1971 to Spring 1972.  U. Albany’s M.E. Grenander Department of Special Collections & Archives has miscellaneous copies of Kite through 1980.  If you know anything about either of these mystery publications I’d love to hear from you!

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Continuing Up the Hill: William Weightman Walker Laboratory

The first two buildings erected on the Warren estate property, purchased by the Institute after the 1904 fire which destroyed the Main Building, were the Carnegie Building (described in our last Continuing Up the Hill post) and Walker Laboratory. These two buildings mark the beginning of Rensselaer’s red brick-green roof campus.

The Institute’s growing student body (up from 175 students in 1899 to 426 in 1905) put an increasing strain on the facilities in Winslow Laboratory and in 1905 it was decided to build a new state-of-the-art facility. The Walker Laboratory was constructed at the same time as the Carnegie Building and was finished at the end of 1906 for a cost of $110,000. J.J. Albright, (Class of 1868), contributed $50,000 for the new laboratory. The building was designed by the Lawlor (Class of 1888) & Hesse architectural firm. The building’s 22 rooms included five large laboratories for various specialties. In 1913 changes were made to enlarge the laboratory spaces. Then in 1917 the increasing number of chemical engineering students made it evident that yet more laboratory space was required and the building’s size was doubled by an addition on its east side in 1921.

Shortly after the building was completed in 1906 it was named the William Weightman Walker Laboratory in memory of Dr. William Weightman Walker (Class of 1886), in gratitude to Mrs. R.J. Walker, Dr. Walker’s mother, who was a major benefactor to Rensselaer after the Main Building fire.

A two year renovation of Walker Laboratory was completed in 1996 to incorporate 21st century innovations in the teaching of chemistry, including state-of-the-art wet labs and studio classrooms. At present the building is used for interactive learning in chemistry and related fields. It has housed the undergraduate chemistry program since it opened in 1906.

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